EMANUEL MESSINGER, A.B., M.D.
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The problem of determining the functional impairment, or conversely the cardiac reserve of ambulatory cardiac patients has always been a baffling one. Even with the use of all our modern laboratory adjuncts—the fluoroscope, roentgen-ray measurements of the heart, and lastly the electrocardiogram, in addition to all available clinical methods, one is often at a loss to decide just where in the scale of impairment of cardiovascular function a particular patient belongs. This difficulty of course arises chiefly in the case of the strictly ambulatory cardiac patient, since those patients who show evidences of decompensation either at rest or after moderate
MESSINGER E. THE ESTIMATION OF CARDIAC FUNCTION BY SIMPLE CLINICAL METHODS1. Ann Intern Med. 1937;10:986–999. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-10-7-986
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1937;10(7):986-999.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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