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The culture of organs in vitro could not be successfully achieved until many difficulties had been overcome. A medium must be perfused through an organ under a pulsatile pressure. This medium, as well as the organ, must remain sterile. The fluid must be kept suitably oxygenated, free of particles and exactly adjusted as to temperature, osmotic pressure, pH and maximum and minimum pressures. In 1931 Lindbergh devised an apparatus which could be kept sterile but it failed in other particulars. It was only in 1934 that the first form of the successful pump was obtained and the following year when
The Culture of Organs.. Ann Intern Med. ;12:418. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-12-3-418_3
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1938;12(3):418.
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