ALFRED VOGL, M.D., F.A.C.P.; PETER ELSBACH, M.D.
Displacement of the heart is most often encountered as the result of an asymmetric expansion or shrinkage of intrathoracic structures, most often in the presence of a large pleural effusion or of massive collapse of a lung. Cardiac displacement occurs less often due to gross deformity of the bony parts of the chest, the sternum, ribs or spine. Such displacement is inevitable if the sternovertebral distance becomes shorter than the sagittal diameter of the heart. A reduction of such a degree is rarely caused by deformation of the thorax through trauma or acquired disease of the bony parts, but is
VOGL A, ELSBACH P. CARDIAC DISPLACEMENT IN PECTUS EXCAVATUM1. Ann Intern Med. ;47:145–152. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-47-1-145
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1957;47(1):145-152.
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