E. PERRY MCCULLAGH, M.D., F.A.C.P.; MARVIN CLAMEN, M.D.; W. JAMES GARDNER, M.D.; ROSCOE J. KENNEDY, M.D.; GEORGE LOCKHART III, M.D.
Graves' disease may be considered to be a thyroid-pituitary syndrome. The two chief manifestations of the disorder are exophthalmos and hyperplastic goiter with hyperthyroidism. They usually are concurrent but may be totally dissociated, either one preceding the other. Sometimes exophthalmos is the only manifestation of the disease.
In Graves' disease the term exophthalmos designates not only proptosis but also various associated manifestations, such as lid retraction and other changes associated with increase in bulk of the periocular tissues. This increase is due to increase in fat and in mucopolysaccharides, and sometimes to apparent edema, although the studies of Rundle and
MCCULLAGH EP, CLAMEN M, GARDNER WJ, et al. EXOPHTHALMOS OF GRAVES' DISEASE: A SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF THERAPY*. Ann Intern Med. 1958;48:445–470. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-48-3-445
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1958;48(3):445-470.
Endocrine and Metabolism, Thyroid Disorders.
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