JOHN MCMICHAEL, M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S., F.A.C.P. (Hon.)
The total picture of cardiac failure, with consequent dyspnea and edema as major manifestations, is one of considerable complexity. These clinical consequences are often given major attention in discussions of cardiac insufficiency, and at one time it was cynically remarked that the major offending organ in heart failure was the kidney. Certainly more attention was often paid to the kidney than to the central pump which is primarily involved.
Accurate methods of cardiac output determination put an end to many speculative hypotheses, and we can well remember the astonishment and incredulity with which the concept of "high output failure" was
MCMICHAEL J. CHANGING VIEWS ON HEART FAILURE1. Ann Intern Med. 1959;51:635–640. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-51-4-635
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1959;51(4):635-640.
Cardiology, Heart Failure.
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