Francesco del Greco, M.D.; J. Shere, M.D.; N. M. Simon, M.D.
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Dyspnea, orthopnea, edema, venous distention, pulmonary congestion, and cardiomegaly are not unusual in patients with chronic renal failure. On clinical rounds alone, it is difficult to ascribe these symptoms and signs to myocardial failure or to noncardiac circulatory congestion. The latter is characterized by normal or increased cardiac output and poor response to digitalization. Studies were undertaken, therefore, to define cardiac hemodynamics in patients with advanced chronic renal insufficiency presenting clinical features of "congestive heart failure."
Fourteen patients with blood urea nitrogen levels ranging from 40 to 250 mg/100 ml were studied on 18 occasions. Cardiac output (CO) was measured
del Greco F, Shere J, Simon NM. Circulatory Congestion in Chronic Renal Failure: Hemodynamic Studies.. Ann Intern Med. 1964;60:318. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-60-2-318_1
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1964;60(2_Part_1):318.
Chronic Kidney Disease, Nephrology.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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