WILLIAM P. BALDUS, M.D.; RALPH N. FEICHTER, M.D.; WILLIAM H. J. SUMMERSKILL, M.D.
Simultaneous impairment of certain hepatic and renal functions may develop under widely different pathologic circumstances. Some authors have described such conditions by the term "hepatorenal syndrome," thus attributing a specific, but undefined, interrelationship to the liver and kidney (1-3). There are, however, strong indications that this syndrome represents a heterogenous group of disorders. It is therefore preferable to consider the various clinical and pathophysiologic changes individually. The following classification embraces the clinical circumstances in which common causes or direct relationships between renal and hepatic disorders have been most clearly substantiated:
1. Systemic diseases involving both liver and kidney (infectious, toxic,
BALDUS WP, FEICHTER RN, SUMMERSKILL WHJ. The Kidney in Cirrhosis: I. Clinical and Biochemical Features of Azotemia in Hepatic Failure. Ann Intern Med. 1964;60:353–365. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-60-3-353
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1964;60(3):353-365.
Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Liver Disease, Nephrology.
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