ROBERT G. SIEKERT, M.D., F.A.C.P.; CLARK H. MILLIKAN, M.D., F.A.C.P.; JACK P. WHISNANT, M.D., F.A.C.P.
In 1961, Baker (1), Toole (2), and Fields (3) each showed arteriograms in which it was observed that, when the subclavian artery was severely narrowed or occluded proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery, the flow of contrast medium (that is, blood) in the vertebral artery ipsilateral to the involved subclavian artery was in the direction opposite from the normal.
Toole's two patients were later reported on in detail by Reivich, Holling, Roberts, and Toole (4). Their first patient had experienced 15-min episodes of paralysis of the left upper limb. These attacks of monoparesis were not brought on by
SIEKERT RG, MILLIKAN CH, WHISNANT JP. Reversed Blood Flow in the Vertebral Arteries. Ann Intern Med. ;61:64–72. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-61-1-64
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1964;61(1):64-72.
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