KAYE H. KILBURN, M.D.
Abnormally rapid or deep breathing may be the first clue to disorders affecting the human respiratory apparatus at any point from the cerebral cortex to pulmonary alveoli. Normally, the rate of breathing at rest varies within narrow limits (1), and the tidal volume is altered to adjust ventilation to metabolic needs. Patients whose spontaneous (involuntary) breathing is outside these limits usually fall into one of two groups. Those with the hyperventilation syndrome represent one type with increased cortical drive or facilitation of breathing. This disorder is characterized by hyperpnea, the sensation of breathlessness or smothering, altered consciousness, blurred vision, and
KILBURN KH. Tachypnea and Hyperpnea: Signs of Compensatory Ventilation. Ann Intern Med. 1965;62:486–498. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-62-3-486
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1965;62(3):486-498.
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