Samuel Fine, M.D.; Edmund Klein, M.D.; William H. Haynie, Ph.D.; Martin Litwin, M.D.; Yona Laer, M.D.; Frederick S. Hust, M.A.
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The range of biological effects and the potential hazards of laser radiation are increasing as rapid technological advances provide increasing energy and power levels in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared.
Studies were carried out on over 5,000 rodents to elucidate mechanisms of interactions of laser radiation at several levels of biological organization as a basis for meaningful applications to biomedical problems and for assessing short- and long-term hazards. The factors studied included elevation of temperature, phase transformation, pressure waves, back-scattered radiation and particulate matter, formation of charged particles and free radicals.
Thresholds for reversible changes in the intact mammal were
Fine S, Klein E, Haynie WH, et al. Biological Effects and Hazards of Laser Radiation.. Ann Intern Med. 1966;64:1174. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-64-5-1174_1
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1966;64(5):1174.
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