ALAN B. GRINDAL, M.D.; JAMES F. TOOLE, M.D., F.A.C.P.
With the recent advances in aortocranial angiography and surgical treatment of extracranial vascular disease, as well as the publication of sometimes conflicting reports concerning indications and results of treatment, we have compiled an updated assessment of the role of surgery in the treatment of cerebrovascular ischemia. Indications for the repair of asymptomatic carotid stenosis, kinks of the carotid artery, bilateral carotid stenosis, carotid occlusion and subclavian vertebral lesions are considered. New surgical techniques such as superficial temporal-middle cerebral artery anastomosis are discussed.
GRINDAL AB, TOOLE JF. Surgical Treatment of Carotid and Vertebral Artery Disease: An Updating to 1974. Ann Intern Med. ;81:647–649. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-81-5-647
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1974;81(5):647-649.
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