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Monographic description of the methods and findings in an eight-year prospective study of early chronic obstructive lung disease in London, England. Appendixes include the questionnaires used, statistical considerations, radiologic criteria, and some case histories.
The main findings are stated in the Introduction:
The basic conclusion is that there are two distinct, but commonly associated, components of chronic obstructive lung disease.
The obstructive disorder, due both to intrinsic disease of the airways and to emphysema, is caused by smoking, especially of cigarettes. Only a minority of cigarette smokers are affected severely enough to become disabled by it. In them, it causes
The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema.. Ann Intern Med. 1978;88:445. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-88-3-445_1
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1978;88(3):445.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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