JOHN E. EDWARDS Jr., M.D.; ROBERT I. LEHRER, M.D.; E. RICHARD STIEHM, M.D.; THOMAS J. FISCHER, M.D.; LOWELL S. YOUNG, M.D., F.A.C.P.
Disseminated candidiasis has become an important infection, particularly in immunocompromised and postoperative patients. Although serologic tests may, in some settings, facilitate a premortem diagnosis, the disease is usually diagnosed by comprehensive clinical evaluation. Detection of the relatively newly recognized peripheral manifestations of candidemia may be vital to early diagnosis: endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, myocarditis, meningitis, and macronodular skin lesions. Studies in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and in-vitro manipulations have begun to elucidate normal immune defense mechanisms against Candida, including serum factors, phagocytosis, intracellular killing mechanisms, and lymphocyte function (particularly T cell). The primary drugs for the treatment of disseminated candidiasis are still amphotericin B or amphotericin B plus 5-fluorocytosine; the mainstay of therapy for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is amphotericin B. Other antifungals and immune system-stimulating modalities (transfer factor, thymosin, thymus epithelial cell transplantation, and levamisol) may be useful for chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in some settings and deserve further evaluation.
EDWARDS JE, LEHRER RI, STIEHM ER, et al. Severe Candidal Infections: Clinical Perspective, Immune Defense Mechanisms, and Current Concepts of Therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1978;89:91–106. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-89-1-91
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1978;89(1):91-106.
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