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Teaching and learning auscultation has long been a difficult and tedious process. Before recording techniques were available, our predecessors developed basic tenets by coupling careful bedside auscultation with anatomic, physiologic and postmortem pathologic correlates, and used the sounds of nature, music, or mechanical devices in an onomatopoeic framework to present or communicate the accumulated wisdom. Contemporary clinicians still use and learn from these time-honored methods, but they are likely to be influenced by external, intracardiac, or echo-phonocardiography with hemodynamic, angiographic, nuclear, and surgical correlates that confirm, expand, or consolidate these basic observations.
Delman and Stein present a step-by-step, encyclopedic text
Dynamic Cardiac Auscultation and Phonocardiography.. Ann Intern Med. 1979;91:938. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-91-6-938_2
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1979;91(6):938.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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