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Studies of diagnostic thinking suggest that clinicians often formulate working diagnoses prematurely and haphazardly, inviting omission and error. This book proposes a diagnostic system starting with visualization of anatomic and histologic structures suggested by the presenting complaint, then considering the cause using the mnemonic VINDICATE (vascular, inflammatory, neoplastic, degenerative, intoxication, congential, autoimmune, trauma, endocrine). Several hundred cardinal disease manifestations are analyzed in this context. Numerous lists, tables and schematic illustrations aid recall and suggest appropriate detailed differential testing. A substantial knowledge of disease is assumed.
The author believes that developing reliable, initial diagnostic hypotheses results in more focused interviewing, examination,
Dynamic Differential Diagnosis.. Ann Intern Med. 1981;95:532. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-95-4-532_1
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1981;95(4):532.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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