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The art of history-taking and physical examination is rapidly being replaced by invasive and noninvasive techniques in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular disease. Taking an accurate history, doing a careful physical examination, and thus developing a clear appreciation of the diagnosis (and of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic changes associated with it) is the clinician's primary task. The increasing atrophy of this ability constitutes a serious failure in our education of medical students and residents.
Dr. Jules Constant, a highly respected cardiovascular educator, tries to meld the cardiac history and physical examination with a problem-oriented approach, using brief clinical
Essentials of Bedside Cardiology for Students and House Staff. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:886. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-112-11-886_1
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1990;112(11):886.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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