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Elwood intends to help readers, particularly researchers, to use their existing skills and knowledge more effectively. Major topics include the selection of subjects for study, error and bias in observations, confounding, and chance variation. Examples are numerous, including full analyses of three published papers, and the writing is clear. The focus throughout is on detecting and demonstrating causal relations and on showing how these relations may be obscured by such problems as bias, small sample size, and inadequate statistical methods. A final chapter integrates these concepts.
I disagree with many of Dr. Elwood's views, including the following definitions and statements.
Causal Relationships in Medicine: A Practical System for Critical Appraisal. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114:916. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-114-10-916_1
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1991;114(10):916.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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