Jack F. Hollis, PhD; Edward Lichtenstein, PhDD; Thomas M. Vogt, MD, MPH; Victor J. Stevens, PhD; Anthony Biglan, PhD
Physician-delivered advice to stop smoking is effective, but time demands often reduce the number of smokers who receive assistance. We evaluated three nurse-assisted interventions designed to minimize physician burden and increase counseling in primary care settings.
Randomized controlled trial with a 12-month follow-up.
Internal medicine and family practice offices in a health maintenance organization.
Smokers (n = 3161) who were patients of participating physicians or other medical care providers (n = 60).
Medical care providers delivered a 30-second stop-smoking prompt to 2707 smokers and referred them to an on-site nurse smoking counselor. The nurse randomly provided a two-page pamphlet [advice control] or one of three nurse-assisted interventions: 1) self-quit training; 2) referral to a group cessation program; or 3) a combination of self-quit training and referral. Each nurse-delivered intervention included a 10-minute video, written materials, and a follow-up phone call.
Physicians delivered brief advice to 86% of identified smokers during the 1-year program. The proportion of participants reporting abstinence after both 3 and 12 months of follow-up nearly doubled (P = 0.01) for the nurse-assisted self-quit (7.1%), group-referral (7.6%), and combination (6.9%) interventions, compared to brief physician advice alone (3.9%) (P < 0.05). Saliva cotinine tests confirmed these effects (P < 0.004), although quit rates were lower (3.4%, 4.7%, 4.3%, and 2.3%, respectively) because roughly one half of quitters chose not to provide a saliva sample and were counted as smokers.
Involving nurses in counseling smokers reduces physician burden, makes counseling more likely, and significantly increases cessation rates compared with brief physician advice alone.
Hollis JF, Lichtenstein E, Vogt TM, Stevens VJ, Biglan A. Nurse-Assisted Counseling for Smokers in Primary Care. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:521–525. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-118-7-199304010-00006
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1993;118(7):521-525.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Smoking, Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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