Daniel Podzamczer, MD; Albert Salazar, MD; Josep Jimenez, MD; Ezequiel Consiglio, MD; Miguel Santin, MD; Aurora Casanova, MD; Gabriel Rufi, MD; Francisco Gudiol, MD
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of two oral, intermittent drug regimens for the simultaneous primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in patients with HIV infection.
Nonblinded randomized study: Patients received either 1) trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [160 mg-800 mg orally twice a day on a thrice weekly regimen] or 2) 100 mg of dapsone plus 50 mg of pyrimethamine orally twice weekly.
University teaching hospital in Barcelona.
230 patients infected with HIV who had CD4 cell counts of less than 200 × 106/L and who had not previously had P. carinii pneumonia or toxoplasmosis.
Clinical and biological evaluations; adverse reactions; and end points of P. carinii pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and death.
After a median follow-up of 430 days, 6 (6.3%) of 96 evaluable patients receiving dapsone-pyrimethamine and 0 of 104 evaluable patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole developed P. carinii pneumonia (P < 0.0001). The cumulative rates of P. carinii pneumonia at 12 and 24 months were 0% and 0% for patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 4% and 11% for patients receiving dapsone-pyrimethamine (Mantel-Cox, P = 0.014). However, only one episode of P. carinii pneumonia developed while patients were taking these drugs. No differences were observed for toxoplasmosis (one episode in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole arm and two in the dapsone-pyrimethamine arm), with cumulative rates at 12 and 24 months of 0% and 4% for the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole arm and 2% and 7% for the dapsone-pyrimethamine arm (P = 0.65). Similar mortality rates were observed during follow-up (P = 0.85). Nineteen patients (9.5%) discontinued therapy with the drugs because of adverse effects: Ten were in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole arm and 9 were in the dapsone-pyrimethamine arm (P = 0.95).
Thrice-weekly trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is an effective and well-tolerated regimen for the simultaneous primary prophylaxis of P. carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in patients infected with HIV. Twice-weekly dapsone-pyrimethamine appears to be a safe and effective alternative.
Podzamczer D, Salazar A, Jimenez J, Consiglio E, Santin M, Casanova A, et al. Intermittent Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Compared with Dapsone-Pyrimethamine for the Simultaneous Primary Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis Pneumonia and Toxoplasmosis in Patients Infected with HIV. Ann Intern Med. ;122:755–761. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-122-10-199505150-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1995;122(10):755-761.
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