Dario Giugliano, MD; Rita Acampora, MD; Raffaele Marfella, MD; Nicoletta De Rosa, MD; Patrizia Ziccardi, MD; Raffaele Ragone, PhD; Lorenita De Angelis, MD; Felice D'Onofrio, MD
Diabetic patients are considered less suitable than nondiabetic patients for β-blocker therapy because of the risk for worsened glucose and lipid metabolism and more severe hypoglycemic attacks.
To compare the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of carvedilol with those of atenolol in diabetic patients with hypertension.
Randomized, double-blind, 24-week trial.
University hospital clinic.
45 patients with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
After a 4- to 6-week run-in period during which placebo was given in a single-blind manner, patients were randomly assigned to carvedilol or atenolol.
An oral glucose tolerance test; assessment of insulin sensitivity and hormonal responses to insulin hypoglycemia; and assessment of lipid levels, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and lipid peroxidation.
Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and left ventricular mass index were similar with carvedilol and atenolol (P > 0.2). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels decreased with carvedilol and increased with atenolol. Responses to carvedilol were greater than those to atenolol, as follows: increase in total glucose disposal, 9.54 µmol/kg of body weight per minute (95% CI, 7 to 11.9 µmol/kg per minute); decrease in plasma glucose response to oral glucose, 61 mmol/L × 180 minutes (CI, −101 to −21 mmol/L × 180 minutes); decrease in insulin response to oral glucose, 6.2 nmol/L × 180 minutes (CI, −9.8 to −2.6 nmol/L × 180 minutes); decrease in triglyceride level, 0.56 mmol/L (CI, −0.75 to −0.37 mmol/L; P < 0.001); increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 0.13 mmol/L (CI, 0.09 to 0.17 mmol/L; P < 0.001); and decrease in lipid peroxidation, 0.25 µmol/L (CI, −0.34 to −0.16µmol/L).
By improving glucose and lipid metabolism and reducing lipid peroxidation, carvedilol may offer advantages in patients with diabetes and hypertension.
Giugliano D, Acampora R, Marfella R, De Rosa N, Ziccardi P, Ragone R, et al. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Effects of Carvedilol and Atenolol in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Ann Intern Med. ;126:955–959. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-126-12-199706150-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(12):955-959.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism, Hypertension.
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