Liana Fraenkel, MD, FRCPC, MPH; Yuqing Zhang, DSc; Christine E. Chaisson, MPH; Stephen R. Evans, BA; Peter W.F. Wilson, MD; David T. Felson, MD, MPH
Hormonal factors may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the Raynaud phenomenon. Experimental studies have shown an increased vasoconstrictor response to estrogen, a response that can be prevented by the addition of progesterone.
To measure the association between estrogen replacement therapy (alone and with progesterone) and the Raynaud phenomenon.
Framingham Offspring Study.
497 postmenopausal women.
Prevalence of the Raynaud phenomenon according to hormone use. Covariates measured included age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, and β-blocker use.
Forty-nine women were classified as having the Raynaud phenomenon (9.9%). The prevalence of this phenomenon was 8.4% among women who did not receive estrogen, 19.1% among women receiving estrogen alone, and 9.8% among women receiving estrogen plus progesterone. The adjusted odds ratio for the Raynaud phenomenon was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.2 to 5.3) for unopposed estrogen and 0.9 (CI, 0.3 to 2.6) for estrogen plus progesterone, with nonusers as the reference group.
Unopposed estrogen therapy was associated with the Raynaud phenomenon in postmenopausal women. This association was not present in women who were receiving combined hormone therapy.
Fraenkel L, Zhang Y, Chaisson CE, et al. The Association of Estrogen Replacement Therapy and the Raynaud Phenomenon in Postmenopausal Women. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129:208–211. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-129-3-199808010-00009
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 1998;129(3):208-211.
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