Maryan Cavicchi, MD; Philippe Beau, MD; Pascal Crenn, MD; Claude Degott, MD; Bernard Messing, MD
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Ms. M. Beliah for her helpful assistance and Mr. Jeffrey Arsham for critical reading of the manuscript.
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Current Author Addresses: Dr. Cavicchi: Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie, Hôpital Henri Mondor, 51 avenue du Mal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.
Dr. Beau: Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie et de Nutrition, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire La Milétrie, 89000 Poitiers, France.
Dr. Crenn: Service d'Hépato-Gastroentérologie et de Nutrition, Hôpital Bichat-C. Bernard, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18, France.
Dr. Degott: Service d'Anatomo-Pathologie, Hôpital Beaujon, 100 boulevard du Général Leclerc, 92110 Clichy, France.
Dr. Messing: Service de Gastroentérologie et d'Assistance Nutritive, Hôpital Lariboisière-St. Lazare, 2 rue Ambroise Paré, 75475 Paris Cedex 10, France.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: M. Cavicchi, P. Beau, B. Messing.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: M. Cavicchi, P. Crenn, C. Degott, B. Messing.
Drafting of the article: M. Cavicchi, B. Messing.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: M. Cavicchi, P. Beau, C. Degott, B. Messing.
Final approval of the article: M. Cavicchi, P. Beau, P. Crenn, C. Degott, B. Messing.
Provision of study materials or patients: P. Beau, B. Messing.
Statistical expertise: M. Cavicchi, P. Crenn, B. Messing.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: M. Cavicchi, B. Messing.
Collection and assembly of data: M. Cavicchi, P. Beau.
Liver cholestasis can be a life-threatening complication during home parenteral nutrition and may lead to combined liver-intestinal transplantation.
To assess the prevalence of home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and its contributing factors in patients with permanent intestinal failure.
Prospective cohort study.
Two approved home parenteral nutrition centers.
90 patients with permanent intestinal failure who were receiving home parenteral nutrition were enrolled from 1985 to 1996.
Clinical, biological, endoscopic, and ultrasonographic follow-up. Histologic examination of the liver was done in 57 patients (112 liver biopsies).
The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the actuarial occurrence of chronic cholestasis and complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease (bilirubin level ≥ 60 µmol/L [3.5 mg/dL], factor V level ≤ 50%, portal hypertension, encephalopathy, ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding, or histologically proven extensive fibrosis or cirrhosis). Contributing factors were assessed by using univariate and multivariate (Cox model) analysis.
58 patients (65%) developed chronic cholestasis after a median of 6 months (range, 3 to 132 months), and 37 (41.5%) developed complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease after a median of 17 months (range, 2 to 155 months). Of these patients, 17 showed extensive fibrosis after 26 months (range, 2 to 148 months) and 5 had cirrhosis after 37 months (range, 26 to 77 months). The prevalence of complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease was 26% ± 9% at 2 years and 50% ± 13% at 6 years. Six patients died of liver disease (22% of all deaths). In multivariate analysis, chronic cholestasis was significantly associated with a parenteral nutrition-independent risk for liver disease, a bowel remnant shorter than 50 cm in length, and a parenteral lipid intake of 1 g/kg of body weight per day or more (ω-6-rich long-chain triglycerides), whereas complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease was significantly associated with chronic cholestasis and lipid parenteral intake of 1 g/kg per day or more.
The prevalence of complicated home parenteral nutrition-related liver disease increased with longer duration of parenteral nutrition. This condition was one of the main causes of death in patients with permanent intestinal failure. Parenteral intake of ω-6-rich long-chain triglycerides lipid emulsion consisting of less than 1 g/kg per day is recommended in these patients.
Cavicchi M, Beau P, Crenn P, Degott C, Messing B. Prevalence of Liver Disease and Contributing Factors in Patients Receiving Home Parenteral Nutrition for Permanent Intestinal Failure. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:525–532. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-132-7-200004040-00003
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(7):525-532.
Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Liver Disease.
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