Kalpana Gupta, MD, MPH; Thomas M. Hooton, MD; Walter E. Stamm, MD
Disclaimer: Dr. Gupta has served as a consultant for and received research support and speaking honoraria from Procter & Gamble and Bayer Pharmaceutical. Dr. Hooton has received research support and speaking honoraria from Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Procter & Gamble, Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Pfizer, and Bayer Pharmaceutical. Dr. Stamm has served as a consultant for and received research support and honoraria from Procter & Gamble, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, and Bayer Pharmaceutical.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Douglas Black, PharmD, and Melissa Dearey, PharmD candidate, for compiling the pharmacokinetic data.
Grant Support: In part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (DK 53369).
Requests for Single Reprints: Walter E. Stamm, MD, Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific Street, BB1225, Box 356523, Seattle, WA 98195.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Gupta, Hooton, and Stamm: Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific Street, BB1225, Box 356523, Seattle, WA 98195.
Community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in women. Therapy for these infections is usually begun before results of microbiological tests are known. Furthermore, in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis, empirical therapy without a pretherapy urine culture is often used. The rationale for this approach is based on the highly predictable spectrum of etiologic agents causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. However, antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing community-acquired UTIs, both cystitis and pyelonephritis, is increasing. Most important has been the increasing resistance to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP–SMX), the current drug of choice for treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women.
What implications do these trends have for treatment of community-acquired UTIs? Preliminary data suggest that clinical cure rates may be lower among women with uncomplicated cystitis treated with TMP–SMX when the infecting pathogen is resistant to TMP–SMX. Women with pyelonephritis also have less bacterial eradication and lower clinical cure rates when treated with TMP–SMX for an infection that is resistant to the drug. Therefore, in the outpatient setting, identifying risk factors for TMP–SMX resistance and knowing the prevalence of TMP–SMX resistance in the local community are important steps in choosing an appropriate therapeutic agent. When choosing a treatment regimen, physicians should consider such factors as in vitro susceptibility, adverse effects, cost-effectiveness, and selection of resistant strains. Using a management strategy that takes these variables into account is essential for maintaining the safety and efficacy of treatment for acute UTI.
Gupta K, Hooton TM, Stamm WE. Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance and the Management of Uncomplicated Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:41–50. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-135-1-200107030-00012
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(1):41-50.
Infectious Disease, Nephrology, Urinary Tract Infection, Urological Disorders.
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