Russell D. Hull, MBBS, MSc; Graham F. Pineo, MD; Paul D. Stein, MD; Andrew F. Mah, BSc; Susan M. MacIsaac, MSc; Ola E. Dahl, MD, PhD; Matthew Butcher, BSc; Rollin F. Brant, PhD; William A. Ghali, MD, MPH; David Bergqvist, MD, PhD; Gary E. Raskob, PhD
Acknowledgments: The authors thank the following individuals for their assistance on this manuscript: Adrian Jorgenson, Rita Biel, Jill Ho-You, Vicki Stagg, Jennifer Ringrose, Derek Leung, and Mickey Correa.
Requests for Single Reprints: Russell D. Hull, MBBS, MSc, Thrombosis Research Unit, Foothills Hospital, Room 601 South Tower, 1403—29th Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 2T9, Canada; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Hull and Pineo, Mr. Mah, Ms. MacIsaac, Mr. Butcher: Thrombosis Research Unit, University of Calgary, Foothills Hospital, Room 601 South Tower, 1403- 29th Street NW, Calgary, T2N 2T9 Alberta, Canada.
Drs. Brant and Ghali: University of Calgary, Community Health Sciences, 3310 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, T2N 2T9 Alberta, Canada.
Dr. Stein: Saint Joseph Mercy—Oakland, 888 Woodward Avenue, Suite 107, Pontiac, MI, 48341-2964.
Dr. Dahl: Lokenlia 36, 1352 Kolsas, Norway.
Dr. Bergqvist: Department of Surgery, Akademiska sjukhuset, Malmö General Hospital, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
Dr. Raskob: Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Box 26901 (LIB 221), Oklahoma City, OK 73190.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: R.D. Hull, G.F. Pineo, A.F. Mah, O.E. Dahl.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: R.D. Hull, G.F. Pineo, A.F. Mah, S.M. MacIsaac, O.E. Dahl, M. Butcher, R.F. Brant, W.A. Ghali, D. Bergqvist, G.E. Raskob.
Drafting of the article: R.D. Hull, G.F. Pineo, P.D. Stein, A.F. Mah, S.M. MacIsaac, O.E. Dahl, R.F. Brant, G.E. Raskob.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: R.D. Hull, G.F. Pineo, A.F. Mah, O.E. Dahl, M. Butcher, W.A. Ghali, D. Bergqvist, G.E. Raskob.
Final approval of the article: R.D. Hull, G.F. Pineo, A.F. Mah, O.E. Dahl, R.F. Brant, W.A. Ghali, D. Bergqvist, G.E. Raskob.
Provision of study materials or patients: G.F. Pineo.
Statistical expertise: R.D. Hull, W.A. Ghali, G.E. Raskob.
Obtaining of funding: G.F. Pineo.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: M. Butcher.
Collection and assembly of data: G.F. Pineo, M. Butcher, D. Bergqvist.
Evidence-based medicine guidelines based on venographic end points recommend in-hospital prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients having elective hip surgery. Emerging data suggest that out-of-hospital use may offer additional protection; however, uncertainty remains about the risk–benefit ratio. To provide clinicians with a practical pathway for translating clinical research into practice, we systematically reviewed trials comparing extended out-of-hospital LMWH prophylaxis versus placebo.
Studies were identified by 1) searching PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library Database for reports published from January 1976 to May 2001; 2) reviewing references from retrieved articles; 3) scanning abstracts from conference proceedings; and 4) contacting pharmaceutical companies and investigators of the original reports.
Randomized, controlled trials comparing extended out-of-hospital prophylaxis with LMWH versus placebo in patients having elective hip arthroplasty.
Two reviewers extracted data independently. Reviewers evaluated study quality by using a validated four-item instrument.
Six of seven original articles met the defined inclusion criteria. The included studies were double-blind trials that used proper randomization procedures. Compared with placebo, extended out-of-hospital prophylaxis decreased the frequency of all episodes of deep venous thrombosis (placebo rate, 150 of 666 patients [22.5%]; relative risk, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.32 to 0.54; P < 0.001]), proximal venous thrombosis (placebo rate, 76 of 678 patients [11.2%]; relative risk, 0.31 [CI, 0.20 to 0.47; P < 0.001]), and symptomatic venous thromboembolism (placebo rate, 36 of 862 patients [4.2%]; relative risk, 0.36 [CI, 0.20 to 0.67; P = 0.001]). Major bleeding was rare, occurring in only one patient in the placebo group.
Extended LMWH prophylaxis showed consistent effectiveness and safety in the trials (regardless of study variations in clinical practice and length of hospital stay) for venographic deep venous thrombosis and symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The aggregate findings support the need for extended out-of-hospital prophylaxis in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty surgery.
Hull RD, Pineo GF, Stein PD, et al. Extended Out-of-Hospital Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Prophylaxis against Deep Venous Thrombosis in Patients after Elective Hip Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:858–869. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-135-10-200111200-00006
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(10):858-869.
Hospital Medicine, Venous Thromboembolism.
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