Hiroaki Kawano, MD, PhD; Takeshi Motoyama, MD, PhD; Masamichi Ohgushi, MD, PhD; Kiyotaka Kugiyama, MD, PhD; Hisao Ogawa, MD, PhD; Hirofumi Yasue, MD, PhD
Acknowledgments: The authors thank the patient volunteers for their outstanding patience and generosity, Yasunori Uragari for expert assistance with statistical analysis, and Noriko Kawano for help in many ways.
Grant Support: By a Grant for Clinical Vascular Function and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A12770346) from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Japan.
Requests for Single Reprints: Hiroaki Kawano, MD, PhD, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto City 860-8556, Japan; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Kawano, Motoyama, Kugiyama, and Ogawa: Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto City 860-8556, Japan.
Dr. Ohgushi: Kumamoto Regional Medical Center, 5-16-10 Honjo, Kumamoto City 860-0811, Japan.
Dr. Yasue: Kumamoto Aging Research Institute, 6-8-1 Yamamuro, Kumamoto City 860-8518, Japan.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: H. Kawano, H. Yasue.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: H. Kawano, T. Motoyama,
Drafting of the article: H. Kawano, H. Yasue.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: H. Kawano.
Final approval of the article: H. Kawano, T. Motoyama, M. Ohgushi, K. Kugiyama, H. Ogawa, H. Yasue.
Provision of study materials or participants: H. Kawano, T. Motoyama, M. Ohgushi, K. Kugiyama, H. Ogawa, H. Yasue.
Statistical expertise: H. Kawano.
Obtaining of funding: H. Kawano, H. Yasue.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: K. Kugiyama, H. Ogawa, H. Yasue.
Collection and assembly of data: H. Kawano, T. Motoyama, M. Ohgushi.
An abundance of ovarian hormones is assumed to be a major contributor to the low incidence of ischemic heart disease in premenopausal women. However, the effects of ovarian hormones remain undetermined.
To examine whether the variation in ovarian hormone levels throughout a menstrual cycle affects myocardial ischemia in women with variant angina.
Prospective, observational study.
University medical center in Japan.
10 premenopausal women with variant angina.
Frequency of spontaneous ischemic episodes, flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery, and serum levels of estradiol and progesterone.
Frequency of ischemic episodes was highest from the end of the luteal phase to the beginning of the menstrual phase and was lowest in the follicular phase. Flow-mediated vasodilation and estradiol levels were lowest from the end of the luteal phase to the beginning of the menstrual phase and were highest in the follicular phase.
In premenopausal women with variant angina, we documented a cyclic variation in endothelial function and the frequency of myocardial ischemia that was associated with the variation in estrogen levels.
Kawano H, Motoyama T, Ohgushi M, Kugiyama K, Ogawa H, Yasue H. Menstrual Cyclic Variation of Myocardial Ischemia in Premenopausal Women with Variant Angina. Ann Intern Med. ;135:977–981. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-135-11-200112040-00009
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(11):977-981.
Cardiology, Coronary Heart Disease.
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