Arshag D. Mooradian, MD; Marla Bernbaum, MD; Stewart G. Albert, MD
Acknowledgments: The authors thank the nursing and pharmacy staff and the residents and students training in the Division of Endocrinology, St. Louis University Hospital, for their valuable discussions over many years of caring for people with diabetes.
Grant Support: None.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: Consultancies: A.D. Mooradian (Aventis, Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly Inc.); Honoraria: A.D. Mooradian (Eli Lilly Inc., Aventis, Novo Nordisk); Grants received: A.D. Mooradian (Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly Inc., Aventis).
Requests for Single Reprints: Arshag D. Mooradian, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida, 653-1 West 8th Street, 4th Floor, LRC, Jacksonville, FL 32209; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Mooradian: Department of Medicine, University of Florida, 653-1 West 8th Street, 4th Floor, LRC, Jacksonville, FL 32209.
Drs. Bernbaum and Albert: Division of Endocrinology, Saint Louis University Medical School, 1402 South Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63104.
The emergence of multiple insulin products has provided new opportunities to achieve diabetes control. However, the number of options has raised concerns about the optimal choices of products.
To briefly review the pharmacologic characteristics of currently available insulin products and to suggest an initial insulin regimen based on common blood glucose profiles among patients with diabetes.
Relevant manuscripts were identified through a MEDLINE search (1996 to 25 February 2006) of the English-language literature. The key phrase used was therapeutic use ofinsulin. The literature search was limited to core clinical journals that have accessible full texts.
Clinical trials and authoritative reviews published between 1996 and February 2006 were selected. A total of 420 manuscripts was reviewed.
The authors independently reviewed the relevant available literature. This literature, along with the authors' clinical experience, was used to construct practical suggestions.
Several new insulin and insulin analogue preparations are now available for clinical use. Used as prandial insulin (for example, insulin lispro, insulin aspart, or insulin glulisine) and basal insulin (for example, insulin glargine or insulin detemir), the analogues simulate physiologic insulin profiles more closely than the older conventional insulins. There is currently no strong rationale favoring glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin, insulin detemir, or fixed-ratio insulin preparations as the preferred agent for initiating insulin therapy.
This was a retrospective review of previously published manuscripts chosen at the authors' discretion.
The advent of recombinant DNA technology made it possible to overcome limitations in the time-action profiles of conventional insulins. Insulin therapy must be individualized. Nevertheless, certain subgroups of patients with diabetes can be differentiated from each other according to the pattern of blood glucose changes during the day. On the basis of the blood glucose profile, the authors suggest an initial insulin regimen that can be used to evaluate individual responsiveness and plan a long-term regimen.
Mooradian AD, Bernbaum M, Albert SG. Narrative Review: A Rational Approach to Starting Insulin Therapy. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:125–134. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-145-2-200607180-00010
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(2):125-134.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism.
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