Suetonia C. Palmer, MBChB; David O. McGregor, PhD; Petra Macaskill, PhD; Jonathan C. Craig, PhD; Grahame J. Elder, PhD; Giovanni F.M. Strippoli, MD, MPH(Hons), MM
Acknowledgment: The authors thank Narelle Willis (Review Group Coordinator of the Cochrane Renal Group), Ruth Mitchell (Trials Search Coordinator of the Cochrane Renal Group), and the Cochrane Renal Group for assistance with preparation of this study.
Financial Support: Partial funding for this project was provided by the Cochrane Renal Group.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest:Employment: G.F.M. Strippoli (Diaverum). Consultancies: G.J. Elder (Abbott). Honoraria: G.J Elder (Abbott).
Requests for Single Reprints: Suetonia C. Palmer, MBChB, Department of Medicine, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO Box 4345, Christchurch 8001, New Zealand; or e-mail Dr. Strippoli at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Palmer: Department of Medicine, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO Box 4345, Christchurch, 8001, New Zealand.
Dr. McGregor: Department of Nephrology, Christchurch Hospital, Canterbury District Health Board, PO Box 4710, Christchurch, 8001, New Zealand.
Dr. Macaskill: The School of Public Health, Edward Ford Building, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
Dr. Craig: Cochrane Renal Group, Centre for Kidney Research Excellence in Renal Medicine, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.
Dr. Elder: Department of Renal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.
Dr. Strippoli: Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Epidemiology, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Via Nazionale, 66030 Santa Maria Imbaro (Ch), Italy.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: S.C. Palmer, J.C. Craig, G.F.M. Strippoli.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: S.C. Palmer, G.J. Elder, J.C. Craig, P. Macaskill, G.F.M. Strippoli.
Drafting of the article: S.C. Palmer, G.F.M. Strippoli.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: G.J. Elder, J.C. Craig, D.O. McGregor, G.F.M. Strippoli.
Final approval of the article: S.C. Palmer, G.J. Elder, J.C. Craig, D.O. McGregor, P. Macaskill, G.F.M. Strippoli.
Statistical expertise: P. Macaskill.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: G.F.M. Strippoli.
Collection and assembly of data: S.C. Palmer, G.F.M. Strippoli.
Vitamin D compounds are widely used to prevent and treat secondary hyperparathyroidism.
To determine whether vitamin D therapy improves biochemical markers of mineral metabolism and cardiovascular and mortality outcomes in chronic kidney disease.
MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2007), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2007), and Cochrane databases were searched without language restriction.
Randomized, controlled trials of vitamin D compounds in chronic kidney disease were identified.
Two authors independently extracted data.
Seventy-six trials were identified for inclusion; 3667 participants were enrolled. Vitamin D compounds did not reduce the risk for death, bone pain, vascular calcification, or parathyroidectomy. Compared with placebo, established vitamin D sterols were associated with an increased risk for hypercalcemia (relative risk, 2.37 [95% CI, 1.16 to 4.85]) and hyperphosphatemia (relative risk, 1.77 [CI, 1.15 to 2.74]) but did not show a consistent reduction in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Compared with placebo, more recently developed vitamin D analogues were associated with hypercalcemia (relative risk, 5.15 [CI, 1.06 to 24.97]) but not hyperphosphatemia, and levels of PTH were reduced (weighted mean difference, −10.77 pmol/L [CI, −20.51 to −1.03 pmol/L]). For suppression of PTH, intravenous administration was superior to oral vitamin D, but higher intravenous doses were used.
Few studies reported patient-level outcomes, including mortality (8 of 76 trials), and only 5 trials directly compared the effects of treatment with newer vitamin D compounds versus established ones. Heterogeneity in some comparisons remained unexplained by metaregression analyses.
Vitamin D compounds do not consistently reduce PTH levels, and beneficial effects on patient-level outcomes are unproven. The value of vitamin D treatment for people with chronic kidney disease remains uncertain.
Palmer SC, McGregor DO, Macaskill P, Craig JC, Elder GJ, Strippoli GF. Meta-analysis: Vitamin D Compounds in Chronic Kidney Disease. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:840–853. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-147-12-200712180-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(12):840-853.
Chronic Kidney Disease, Endocrine and Metabolism, Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders, Nephrology.
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