Lee R. Goldberg, MD, MPH
Stage A: At risk for heart failure (coronary artery disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus) but has yet to show impaired left ventricular function or hypertrophy.
Stage B: Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (has never had symptomatic heart failure).
Stage C: Current or past symptoms of heart failure associated with underlying structural heart disease.
Stage D: Has truly refractory heart failure and may be eligible for specialized, advanced treatment strategies, such as mechanical circulatory support, procedures to facilitate fluid removal, continuous inotropic infusions, or cardiac transplantation or other innovative or experimental surgical procedures, or for end-of-life care, such as hospice.
Cardiotoxic substance use
Coronary artery disease
Goldberg LR. Heart Failure. Ann Intern Med. ;152:ITC6–1. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-152-11-201006010-01006
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(11):ITC6-1.
Cardiology, Heart Failure.
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