Jeffrey M. Rohde, MD; Karen Jones, RN, BSN, MPH; Norma Padron, PhD, MPH, MA; Russell N. Olmsted, MPH, CIC; Vineet Chopra, MD, MSc; Erik R. Dubberke, MD, MSPH
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not represent the official position of the CDC, the American Hospital Association, or the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Acknowledgment: The authors thank the Health Research & Educational Trust (HRET) Health Care-Associated Infection team, as well as the National Program Team and all members of the CDC STRIVE collaborative.
Disclosures: Dr. Rohde reports a CDC contract with the HRET, which subcontracted with the Society of Hospital Medicine, and personal fees from the Society of Hospital Medicine during the conduct of the study. Ms. Jones reports a CDC contract with an HRET subcontract during the conduct of the study. Mr. Olmsted reports personal fees from the HRET during the conduct of the study and personal fees from Ethicon outside the submitted work. Dr. Chopra reports a contract from the CDC with the HRET, which subcontracted with the University of Michigan to support faculty/staff effort for this contract, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Dubberke reports grants from the CDC during the conduct of the study; grants from Pfizer, Merck, and Rebiotix outside the submitted work; and personal fees from Pfizer, Merck, Valneva, Rebiotix, Achaogen, Biofire, Abbott, and Synthetic Biologics outside the submitted work. Authors not named here have disclosed no conflicts of interest. Disclosures can also be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M18-3444.
Editors' Disclosures: Christine Laine, MD, MPH, Editor in Chief, reports that her spouse has stock options/holdings with Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD, Executive Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc, Senior Deputy Editor, reports that she has no relationships or interests to disclose. Jaya K. Rao, MD, MHS, Deputy Editor, reports that she has stock holdings/options in Eli Lilly and Pfizer. Catharine B. Stack, PhD, MS, Deputy Editor, Statistics, reports that she has stock holdings in Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, and Colgate-Palmolive. Christina C. Wee, MD, MPH, Deputy Editor, reports employment with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Sankey V. Williams, MD, Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Yu-Xiao Yang, MD, MSCE, Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interest to disclose.
Corresponding Author: Erik R. Dubberke, MD, MSPH, Washington University School of Medicine, 4523 Clayton Avenue, Box 8051, St. Louis, MO 63110; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Rohde and Chopra: University of Michigan Medical School, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Ms. Jones: University of Michigan Medical School, 300 North Ingalls, Room 900A, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Dr. Padron: Health Research & Educational Trust, American Hospital Association, 155 North Wacker, Suite 400, Chicago, IL 60606.
Mr. Olmsted: Integrated Clinical Services, Trinity Health, 20555 Victor Parkway, Livonia, MI 48152.
Dr. Dubberke: Washington University School of Medicine, 4523 Clayton Avenue, Box 8051, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: J.M. Rohde, N. Padron, R.N. Olmsted, V. Chopra.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: R.N. Olmsted, E.R. Dubberke.
Drafting of the article: J.M. Rohde, N. Padron, V. Chopra, E.R. Dubberke.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: J.M. Rohde, K. Jones, R.N. Olmsted, V. Chopra, E.R. Dubberke.
Final approval of the article: J.M. Rohde, K. Jones, N. Padron, R.N. Olmsted, V. Chopra, E.R. Dubberke.
Obtaining of funding: N. Padron, V. Chopra.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: K. Jones, N. Padron, V. Chopra.
Tiers of interventions to prevent CDI.
CDI = Clostridioides difficile infection; EPA = Environmental Protection Agency; GPS = guide to patient safety; TAP = Targeted Assessment for Prevention.
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Rohde JM, Jones K, Padron N, et al. A Tiered Approach for Preventing Clostridioides difficile Infection. Ann Intern Med. 2019;171:S45–S51. doi: 10.7326/M18-3444
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2019;171(7_Supplement):S45-S51.
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