David S. Goldstein, MD, PhD; David Robertson, MD; Murray Esler, MD; Stephen E. Straus, MD; Graeme Eisenhofer, PhD
In dysautonomias, altered function of the autonomic nervous system adversely affects health.
Norepinephrine ( ), dihydroxyphenylglycol ( ), and endogenous L-dopa are produced intraneuronally after uptake of tyrosine. Note that hypofunction of the membrane norepinephrine transporter, responsible for neuronal uptake of catecholamines via the uptake-1 process, should result in augmented responses of plasma norepinephrine levels and attenuated responses of plasma DHPG levels during sympathetic stimulation. MAO = monoamine oxidase.
Thick lines represent increased activity, thin lines represent normal activity, and dashed lines represent decreased activity.
During a panic attack, the amplitude of bursts of sympathetic nerve firing recorded by microneurography increases markedly.
For every affection of the mind that is attended with either pain or pleasure, hope or fear, is the cause of an agitation whose influence extends to the heart, and there induces change from the natural constitution, in the temperature, the pulse and the rest, which impairing all nutrition in its source and abating the powers at large, it is no wonder that various forms of incurable disease in the extremities and in the trunk are the consequence, inasmuch as in such circumstances the whole body labours under the effects of vitiated nutrition and a want of native heat.
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Goldstein DS, Robertson D, Esler M, Straus SE, Eisenhofer G. Dysautonomias: Clinical Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System. Ann Intern Med. ;137:753–763. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-137-9-200211050-00011
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(9):753-763.
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