Roger Chou, MD; Ariel K. Smits, MD, MPH; Laurie Hoyt Huffman, MS; Rongwei Fu, PhD; P. Todd Korthuis, MD, MPH
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Kim Villemyer for her help in preparing the full evidence report and the manuscript; Christina Bougatsos for her help in preparing the manuscript; and Andrew Hamilton, MLS, MS, for conducting the literature searches. They also thank Mark Helfand, MD, MPH; Heidi D. Nelson, MD, MPH; David Lanier, MD; members of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force; and reviewers for their contributions to this project.
Grant Support: This study was conducted by the Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality under contract 290-02-0024, task order no. 2, for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.
Requests for Single Reprints: Roger Chou, MD, Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code BICC, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Chou and Ms. Hoyt Huffman: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code BICC, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Dr. Smits: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code FM, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Dr. Fu: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code CB 669, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Dr. Korthuis: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code L-475, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Each year in the United States, 6000 to 7000 women with HIV give birth. The management and outcomes of prenatal HIV infection have changed substantially since the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued recommendations in 1996.
To synthesize current evidence on risks and benefits of prenatal screening for HIV infection.
MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, reference lists, and experts.
Studies of screening, risk factor assessment, accuracy of testing, follow-up testing, and efficacy of interventions.
Data on settings, patients, interventions, and outcomes were abstracted for included studies; quality was graded according to criteria developed by the Task Force.
No published studies directly link prenatal screening for HIV with clinical outcomes. In developed countries, the rate of mother-to-child transmission from untreated HIV-infected women is 14% to 25%. Targeted screening based on risk factors would miss a substantial proportion of infected women. “Opt-out” testing policies appear to increase uptake rates. Standard HIV testing is highly (>99%) sensitive and specific, and initial studies of rapid HIV tests found that both types of testing had similar accuracy. Rapid testing can facilitate timely interventions in persons testing positive. Recommended interventions (combination antiretroviral regimens, elective cesarean section in selected patients, and avoidance of breastfeeding) are associated with transmission rates of 1% to 2% and appear acceptable to pregnant women.
Long-term safety data for antiretroviral agents are not yet available. Data are insufficient to accurately estimate the benefits of screening on long-term maternal disease progression or other clinical outcomes, such as horizontal transmission.
Identification and treatment of asymptomatic HIV infection in pregnant women can greatly decrease mother-to-child transmission rates.
Screening for HIV—analytic framework for pregnant women.KQHIV ab
Table 1. Large Observational Cohort Studies of the Effect of Combination Antiretroviral Regimens on Risk for Mother-to Child Transmission of HIV Infection
Table 2. Number of Drugs in Full-Course Antiretroviral Regimens and Risk for Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection
Table 3. Randomized, Controlled Trials of Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Reduction of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection
Table 4. Outcomes of Screening for HIV Infection in 3 Hypothetical Cohorts of 10 000 Asymptomatic Pregnant Women
Table 5. Summary of Findings of Systematic Evidence Review
Appendix Table. Base-Case Assumptions for Outcomes Table (Table 4) of Counseling and One-Time Screening for HIV Infection in Pregnant Women
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Chou R, Smits AK, Huffman LH, Fu R, Korthuis PT. Prenatal Screening for HIV: A Review of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:38–54. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-143-1-200507050-00009
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(1):38-54.
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