Stefan Zeuzem, MD; Reem Ghalib, MD; K. Rajender Reddy, MD; Paul J. Pockros, MD; Ziv Ben Ari, MD; Yue Zhao, PhD; Deborah D. Brown, BS; Shuyan Wan, PhD; Mark J. DiNubile, MD; Bach-Yen Nguyen, MD; Michael N. Robertson, MD; Janice Wahl, MD; Eliav Barr, MD; Joan R. Butterton, MD
Various oral interferon- and ribavirin-free regimens are becoming available to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This phase 3 trial evaluates the effectiveness and tolerability of a once-daily grazoprevir–elbasvir regimen in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients infected with HCV genotype 1, 4, or 6.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):1-13. doi:10.7326/M15-0785
Leslee J. Shaw, PhD; Ashley E. Giambrone, PhD; Michael J. Blaha, MD; Joseph T. Knapper, MD; Daniel S. Berman, MD; Naveen Bellam, MD; Arshed Quyyumi, MD; Matthew J. Budoff, MD; Tracy Q. Callister, MD; James K. Min, MD
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores are used to predict mortality, but more is known about the accuracy of short-term predictions than long-term predictions based on these scores. This cohort study found that the extent of CAC accurately predicts 15-year mortality in asymptomatic patients and may motivate patients with high scores to adopt healthier lifestyles.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):14-21. doi:10.7326/M14-0612
B. Gwen Windham, MD, MHS; Bradley Deere, MD; Michael E. Griswold, PhD; Wanmei Wang, MS; Daniel C. Bezerra, MD, PhD; Dean Shibata, MD; Kenneth Butler, PhD; David Knopman, MD; Rebecca F. Gottesman, MD, PhD; Gerardo Heiss, MD, PhD; Thomas H. Mosley Jr., PhD
Cerebral lesions that are 3 mm or larger on imaging are associated with incident stroke, but smaller lesions are typically considered clinically insignificant. This cohort study examined the associations of incident stroke, stroke-related mortality, and all-cause mortality with lesions of various sizes and white matter hyperintensities in a middle-aged biracial population. It found that the presence of lesions smaller than 3 mm, lesions 3 mm or larger, and white matter hyperintensities may all confer a heightened risk for incident stroke and mortality.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):22-31. doi:10.7326/M14-2057
Olalekan A. Uthman, MBBS, MPH, PhD; Charles Okwundu, MBBS, MPH; Kayode Gbenga, MBBS, MPH; Jimmy Volmink, MBChB, MPH, PhD; David Dowdy, MD, PhD; Alimuddin Zumla, BSc, MBChB, MSc, PhD; Jean B. Nachega, MD, MPH, PhD, DTM&H
This systematic review of 8 trials that evaluated early versus delayed or deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-infected adults with newly diagnosed tuberculosis found that early ART improves survival in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 0.050 × 109 cells/L. Evidence is insufficient about the survival benefit conferred by early versus delayed ART initiation in those with CD4+ T-cell counts greater than 0.050 × 109 cells/L.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):32-39. doi:10.7326/M14-2979
Eliano Pio Navarese, MD, PhD; Michalina Kołodziejczak, MD; Volker Schulze, MD; Paul A. Gurbel, MD; Udaya Tantry, PhD; Yingfeng Lin, MD; Maximilian Brockmeyer, MD; David E. Kandzari, MD; Julia M. Kubica, MD; Ralph B. D'Agostino Sr., PhD; Jacek Kubica, MD, PhD; Massimo Volpe, MD; Stefan Agewall, MD; Dean J. Kereiakes, MD; Malte Kelm, MD
This meta-analysis of 24 phase 2 and phase 3 trials summarizes important data about the efficacy and safety of PCSK9 inhibitors in adults with hypercholesterolemia. PCSK9 antibodies produced profound reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein(a); caused few serious adverse events; and, although data were sparse, seemingly reduced myocardial infarction rates and all-cause mortality.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):40-51. doi:10.7326/M14-2957
Emilio Dirlikov, PhD; Mario Raviglione, MD; Fabio Scano, MD
Since 1990, progress has been made toward global tuberculosis control, as measured by targets set for 2015. However, tuberculosis remains a major threat to health around the world. Beyond 2015, tuberculosis control must be seen as both a public health imperative and a vital component of economic development plans.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):52-58. doi:10.7326/M14-2210
Thaddeus Bartter, MD
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been promoted as a means to reduce the use of combustible cigarettes. In this commentary, the author argues that e-cigarettes pose a grave danger as gateways to lifelong addiction and the use of combustible cigarettes.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):59-60. doi:10.7326/M15-0450
M. Bradley Drummond, MD, MHS
Whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) should be viewed as potentially beneficial or only as a new form of cigarette-related harm is controversial. In this commentary, the author argues that although uncertainty remains about potential dangers, e-cigarettes should be considered as a means to reduce exposure to combustible cigarettes.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):61-62. doi:10.7326/M15-0361
Deborah Cotton, MD, MPH, Deputy Editor
Electronic cigarettes are the topic of this issue's discussion from the Annals archive.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):63. doi:10.7326/M15-1145
Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, MD; Seth S. Martin, MD, MHS; John E. Cornell, PhD; Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc; Eliseo Guallar, MD, DrPH
In this issue, Navarese and colleagues' meta-analysis provides important preliminary information on clinical outcomes of PCSK9 inhibitors as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers approval. The editorialists voice cautious enthusiasm but note that the findings must be confirmed in long-term, ongoing, pivotal trials with prespecified cardiovascular disease end points and monitoring of adverse events.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):64-65. doi:10.7326/M15-0920
Robert L. Carolla, MD
After my mother's death and many years after I had been in practice, I was going through her papers and found a letter that a physician had written her 50 years earlier.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):66. doi:10.7326/M14-2884
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):67. doi:10.7326/L15-5103
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):67-68. doi:10.7326/L15-5103-2
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):68. doi:10.7326/L15-5105
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):68-69. doi:10.7326/L15-5105-2
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):69-70. doi:10.7326/L15-5106
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):70. doi:10.7326/L15-5106-2
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):70-71. doi:10.7326/L15-5107
D.A. Frater, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):13. doi:10.7326/M15-0240
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):21. doi:10.7326/M15-0592
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):31. doi:10.7326/M15-0292
Lawrence J. Hergott, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):51. doi:10.7326/M15-0536
Mimi Emig, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):72. doi:10.7326/M14-2963
Ian G. Harnik
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):ITC1. doi:10.7326/AITC201507070
Yehuda Z. Cohen, MD; Saul Haber
Annals Graphic Medicine brings together original graphic narratives, comics, animation/video, and other creative forms by those who provide or receive health care. They address medically relevant topics—whether they be poignant, thought-provoking, or just plain entertaining.
Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(1):W129-W134. doi:10.7326/G14-0001
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