Huabing Zhang, MD; Jorge Plutzky, MD; Maria Shubina, ScD; Alexander Turchin, MD, MS
Guidelines recommend statins for prevention of cardiovascular disease, but many patients discontinue statin therapy because of adverse events. Studies show an association between discontinuation of statin treatment and increased risk for cardiovascular events and death. This study compared the rates of cardiovascular events and mortality among patients who continued to receive statin prescriptions with those in patients who stopped therapy after an adverse event.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):221-227. doi:10.7326/M16-0838
Song-Yi Park, PhD; Neal D. Freedman, PhD; Christopher A. Haiman, ScD; Loïc Le Marchand, MD, PhD; Lynne R. Wilkens, DrPH; Veronica Wendy Setiawan, PhD
Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced mortality in studies of predominantly white populations. This study examined total and cause-specific mortality according to coffee consumption in a large multiethnic cohort.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):228-235. doi:10.7326/M16-2472
Marc J. Gunter, PhD; Neil Murphy, PhD; Amanda J. Cross, PhD; Laure Dossus, PhD; Laureen Dartois, PhD; Guy Fagherazzi, PhD; Rudolf Kaaks, PhD; Tilman Kühn, PhD; Heiner Boeing, PhD; Krasimira Aleksandrova, PhD; Anne Tjønneland, MD, PhD; Anja Olsen, PhD; Kim Overvad, MD, PhD; Sofus Christian Larsen, PhD; Maria Luisa Redondo Cornejo, PhD; Antonio Agudo, PhD; María José Sánchez Pérez, MD, PhD; Jone M. Altzibar, PhD; Carmen Navarro, MD, PhD; Eva Ardanaz, MD, PhD; Kay-Tee Khaw, MB BChir; Adam Butterworth, PhD; Kathryn E. Bradbury, PhD; Antonia Trichopoulou, MD, PhD; Pagona Lagiou, MD, PhD; Dimitrios Trichopoulos, MD, PhD; Domenico Palli, MD; Sara Grioni, BSc; Paolo Vineis, MD, MPH; Salvatore Panico, MD, MSc; Rosario Tumino, MD; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, MD, PhD; Peter Siersema, MD, PhD; Max Leenders, PhD; Joline W.J. Beulens, PhD; Cuno U. Uiterwaal, MD, PhD; Peter Wallström, MD, PhD; Lena Maria Nilsson, PhD; Rikard Landberg, PhD; Elisabete Weiderpass, MD, PhD; Guri Skeie, PhD; Tonje Braaten, PhD; Paul Brennan, PhD; Idlir Licaj, PhD; David C. Muller, PhD; Rashmi Sinha, PhD; Nick Wareham, PhD, MBBS; Elio Riboli, MD, ScM
Although coffee consumption has been associated with lower mortality in some studies, whether this decrease varies according to cultural differences in preparation methods is not known. This study used a large multinational European cohort to compare the associations between coffee consumption and mortality among countries with various coffee preparation methods.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):236-247. doi:10.7326/M16-2945
Dominik Zenner, MD; Netta Beer, PhD; Ross J. Harris, MSc; Marc C. Lipman, MD; Helen R. Stagg, PhD; Marieke J. van der Werf, MD, PhD
This network meta-analysis addresses the comparative efficacy and harms of 16 regimens for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):248-255. doi:10.7326/M17-0609
Carl G. Streed Jr., MD; Omar Harfouch, MD, MPH; Francoise Marvel, MD; Roger S. Blumenthal, MD; Seth S. Martin, MD, MHS; Monica Mukherjee, MD, MPH
Prescription of cross-sex hormone therapy is increasingly desired by transgender persons whose sex assigned at birth differs from their gender identity. Physicians, other health care professionals, and patients need to understand the risks and benefits of this important component of gender-affirming care.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):256-267. doi:10.7326/M17-0577
Tyler J. VanderWeele, PhD; Peng Ding, PhD
Observational studies that assess causality between a treatment and an outcome often are subject to confounding from unmeasured or uncontrolled factors. Sensitivity analysis may be used to assess how robust reported results are to such unmeasured confounding. This article introduces the “E-value,” a measure related to the evidence for causality in observational studies that constitutes a simple form of sensitivity analysis.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):268-274. doi:10.7326/M16-2607
Yogi Hale Hendlin, PhD; Jesse Elias, MA; Pamela M. Ling, MD, MPH
The use and acceptance of e-cigarettes and other noncombustible tobacco products have been growing. The authors point to a concerted effort by tobacco companies to rehabilitate their image as providers of health-related products and argue that such “pharmaceuticalization” of this industry has important consequences for public health.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):278-280. doi:10.7326/M17-0759
John E. Cornell, PhD; Joshua M. Liao, MD, MSc; Catharine B. Stack, PhD, MS; Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc
In meta-analyses, researchers combine data from individual studies into a summary measure to describe the benefits or harms of an intervention. This installment of the “Understanding Clinical Research” series addresses issues that readers should consider when evaluating the meaning of a summary estimate and understanding to whom and under what circumstances it applies.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):275-277. doi:10.7326/M17-1454
Steven E. Nissen, MD
Zhang and colleagues report that among patients who reported an adverse reaction to statins, those who continued to receive statins had a lower cardiovascular event rate at 4 years than those who stopped therapy. The editorialist discusses the potential contribution of unscientific but seemingly persuasive criticism of statins via the Internet to poor statin adherence and the consequent societal costs.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):281-282. doi:10.7326/M17-1566
Eliseo Guallar, MD, DrPH; Elena Blasco-Colmenares, MD, PhD, MPH; Dan E. Arking, PhD; Di Zhao, PhD
Two large studies provide new evidence on the association of coffee intake with mortality. The editorialists discuss these findings in light of previous evidence and conclude that coffee intake can be part of a healthy diet.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):283-284. doi:10.7326/M17-1503
A. Russell Localio, PhD; Catherine B. Stack, PhD; Michael E. Griswold, PhD
VanderWeele and Ding introduce the “E-value” as a simple measure of the potential for bias arising from unmeasured confounders in observational studies. Using an example of an observational study of coffee intake and mortality, the editorialists discuss how the E-value can help researchers explore the possible influence of bias from unobserved factors.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):285-286. doi:10.7326/M17-1485
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):287-288. doi:10.7326/L17-0111
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):288. doi:10.7326/L17-0287
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):288-289. doi:10.7326/L17-0288
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):289-290. doi:10.7326/L17-0285
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):290-291. doi:10.7326/L17-0284
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):291-292. doi:10.7326/L17-0286
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):292. doi:10.7326/L17-0311
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):292. doi:10.7326/L17-0327
Reema Shah, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC14. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-014
Lorraine L. Lipscombe, MD, MSc
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC15. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-015
Thomas Fekete, MD, MACP
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC16. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-016
Noel Chan, MBBS, FRACP; Jeffrey Weitz, MD, FRCPC
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC17. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-017
Fergal O’Donoghue, MB, BCh, PhD; Christine McDonald, MBBS (Hons), PhD
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC18. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-018
Susan M. Ott, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC19. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-019
Kate Rowland, MD, MS
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC20. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-020
Ronald L. Koretz, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC21. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-021
Benton R. Hunter, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC22. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-022
Jennifer A. Rymer, MD; Christopher B. Granger, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):JC23. doi:10.7326/ACPJC-2017-167-4-023
Geno J. Merli, MD; Howard H. Weitz, MD
Annals Consult Guys brings a new perspective to the art and science of medicine with lively discussion and analysis of real-world cases and situations.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):CG1. doi:10.7326/W17-0008
Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):ED4. doi:10.7326/AFED201708150
David H. Wesorick, MD; Vineet Chopra, MD, MSc
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):HO1. doi:10.7326/AFHO201708150
Luci K. Leykum, MD, MBA, MSc; Kevin O'Leary, MD, MS
A growing literature focuses on teams and teamwork in health care, noting the importance of relationships, communication, and coordination; however, it is surprisingly mixed in terms of the association between team performance and patient outcomes. How might we explain this inconsistency? One possible answer lies in how teams “make sense,” or how they establish a shared understanding of a patient's situation.
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):HO2-HO3. doi:10.7326/M17-1829
Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(4):I-16. doi:10.7326/P17-9041
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