Henock G. Yebyo, MSc; Hélène E. Aschmann, MSc; Milo A. Puhan, MD, PhD
Most guidelines recommend statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) if 10-year risk exceeds 7.5% to 10%. However, use of statins for primary prevention of CVD is controversial and varies greatly among countries. The authors performed a quantitative benefit–harm balance modeling study among persons aged 40 to 75 years with no history of CVD to identify the expected risk level above which statins provide net benefit.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):1-10. doi:10.7326/M18-1279
Hila Milo Rasouly, PhD; Emily E. Groopman, BA; Reuben Heyman-Kantor, BA; David A. Fasel, BS; Adele Mitrotti, MD; Rik Westland, MD, PhD; Louise Bier, MSc; Chunhua Weng, PhD; Zhong Ren, BS; Brett Copeland, BS; Priya Krithivasan, MSc; Wendy K. Chung, MD, PhD; Simone Sanna-Cherchi, MD; David B. Goldstein, PhD; Ali G. Gharavi, MD
Genome-wide sequencing is increasingly being used for clinical diagnostics, with an impetus to expand reporting of secondary findings across a wide range of disorders. Analysis of population cohorts can help clarify the potential for variant misclassification and resultant unnecessary referrals to subspecialists. This study examines the burden of candidate pathogenic variants for kidney and genitourinary disorders emerging from genome-wide sequencing.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):11-21. doi:10.7326/M18-1241
Hazel B. Nichols, PhD; Minouk J. Schoemaker, PhD; Jianwen Cai, PhD; Jiawei Xu, BS; Lauren B. Wright, MSc; Mark N. Brook, PhD; Michael E. Jones, PhD; Hans-Olov Adami, MD, PhD; Laura Baglietto, PhD; Kimberly A. Bertrand, ScD; William J. Blot, PhD; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, MD, PhD; Miren Dorronsoro, MD; Laure Dossus, PhD; A. Heather Eliassen, ScD; Graham G. Giles, PhD; Inger T. Gram, MD, PhD; Susan E. Hankinson, ScD; Judy Hoffman-Bolton, AA; Rudolf Kaaks, PhD; Timothy J. Key, DPhil; Cari M. Kitahara, PhD; Susanna C. Larsson, PhD; Martha Linet, MD; Melissa A. Merritt, PhD; Roger L. Milne, PhD; Valeria Pala, DrSc; Julie R. Palmer, ScD; Petra H. Peeters, MD, PhD; Elio Riboli, MD; Malin Sund, MD, PhD; Rulla M. Tamimi, ScD; Anne Tjønneland, MD, PhD, DMSc; Antonia Trichopoulou, MD, PhD; Giske Ursin, MD; Lars Vatten, MD, PhD; Kala Visvanathan, MD; Elisabete Weiderpass, MD, PhD; Alicja Wolk, DrMedSc; Wei Zheng, MD, PhD; Clarice R. Weinberg, PhD; Anthony J. Swerdlow, DM, DSc; Dale P. Sandler, PhD
Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but there is evidence that breast cancer risk may increase shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with such factors as breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated. To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth, this study pooled individual-level data for women younger than 55 years from 15 prospective cohort studies.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):22-30. doi:10.7326/M18-1323
Asher J. Schranz, MD; Aaron Fleischauer, PhD; Vivian H. Chu, MD, MHS; Li-Tzy Wu, RN, ScD, MA; David L. Rosen, MD, PhD
The opioid epidemic has led to an increase in hospital admissions for drug use-associated infective endocarditis (DUA-IE). The authors used a statewide database to examine 10-year trends in the characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized with DUA-IE, including the proportion having valve surgery.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):31-40. doi:10.7326/M18-2124
Mohit K. Turagam, MD; Jalaj Garg, MD; William Whang, MD; Samantha Sartori, PhD; Jacob S. Koruth, MD; Marc A. Miller, MD; Noelle Langan, MD; Aamir Sofi, MD; Anthony Gomes, MD; Subbarao Choudry, MD; Srinivas R. Dukkipati, MD; Vivek Y. Reddy, MD
What are the benefits and harms of catheter ablation versus drug therapy alone for patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure? This meta-analysis of 6 trials provides the answers.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):41-50. doi:10.7326/M18-0992
Robert F. Wolff, MD; Karel G.M. Moons, PhD; Richard D. Riley, PhD; Penny F. Whiting, PhD; Marie Westwood, PhD; Gary S. Collins, PhD; Johannes B. Reitsma, MD, PhD; Jos Kleijnen, MD, PhD; Sue Mallett, DPhil; for the PROBAST Group†
This paper introduces PROBAST, a new tool for assessing risk of bias and applicability of diagnostic and prognostic prediction model studies.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):51-58. doi:10.7326/M18-1376
Karel G.M. Moons, PhD; Robert F. Wolff, MD; Richard D. Riley, PhD; Penny F. Whiting, PhD; Marie Westwood, PhD; Gary S. Collins, PhD; Johannes B. Reitsma, MD, PhD; Jos Kleijnen, MD, PhD; Sue Mallett, DPhil
In this paper, the authors provide a detailed explanation and elaboration of the PROBAST tool.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):W1-W33. doi:10.7326/M18-1377
Arthur Chang, MD, MS; Jerry Thomas, MD; Rudolph Johnson, PhD; Susan E. Gorman, PharmD, MS; Josh Schier, MD, MPH; Luke Yip, MD
Recent international events remind us that nerve agents can be used to attack individuals and create a public health threat. This article provides an overview of the information health care providers who find themselves at the scene of a potential attack would need to know, resources to gain the knowledge needed for preparedness, and the emergency response programs to be mobilized in case of an actual incident.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):59-61. doi:10.7326/M18-2428
Ilana B. Richman, MD; Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS
In this issue, Yebyo and colleagues challenge the risk thresholds in current guidelines for use of statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The editorialists discuss how the findings can support patient-centered decision making, particularly for older adults or those who are more concerned about harms of treatment.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):62-63. doi:10.7326/M18-3066
Jason L. Vassy, MD, MPH
Rasouly and colleagues' study shows that the filters and other automated components of current bioinformatics pipelines alone are insufficient to make a clinically valid determination of whether a genetic variant is disease-causing. The editorialist discusses the findings and the improvements to automated variant interpretation that are needed before entire genomes can be interpreted at scale with clinical validity.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):64-65. doi:10.7326/M18-3090
Katrina Armstrong, MD, MSCE
In their article, Nichols and colleagues report the results of a large and sophisticated analysis of the relationship between childbirth and breast cancer risk. The editorial discusses the insight the study provides into this complex relationship. Although the clinical implications of these findings are limited, the temporal relationship between childbirth and breast cancer risk offers an important clue for the ongoing effort to identify the mechanisms linking reproductive history and breast cancer risk.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):66-67. doi:10.7326/M18-3455
Alysse G. Wurcel, MD, MS
Schranz and colleagues studied the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) in North Carolina between 2007 and 2017 and found a remarkable increase in drug use–associated IE. The editorialist discusses the findings and the need for innovative research on how to prevent endocarditis and to provide equitable, evidence-based treatment focusing not only on the microbe, but also on the underlying substance use disorder.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):68-69. doi:10.7326/M18-3026
Anne N. Thorndike, MD, MPH
The editorialist discusses the findings of Mirbolouk and coworkers' study and how their findings highlight why the medical and public health communities must begin to address e-cigarette use by young adult never-smokers through screening, education, and treatment and pursue research to understand the risks of long-term exposure to e-cigarettes.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):70-71. doi:10.7326/M18-2581
Faith T. Fitzgerald, MD
“You must not tell them or anyone until I am dead what I will tell you now. Promise?”
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):72. doi:10.7326/M18-2353
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):74-76. doi:10.7326/M18-1137
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):76-79. doi:10.7326/M18-1826
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):79-80. doi:10.7326/L18-0612
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):80. doi:10.7326/L18-0613
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):80. doi:10.7326/L18-0435
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):80. doi:10.7326/L18-0619
Jack Coulehan, MD, MPH
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):73. doi:10.7326/M18-1488
Jeffrey A. Sparks, MD, MMSc
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):ITC1-ITC16. doi:10.7326/AITC201901010
Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):ED1. doi:10.7326/AFED201901010
Robert M. Centor, MD; Lisa L. Strate, MD, MPH
In this episode of Annals On Call, Dr. Centor discusses the diagnosis and management of diverticulitis with Dr. Lisa Strate, the author of a recent Annals In the Clinic review.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):OC1. doi:10.7326/A18-0011
Ginny Bao, MD
In this powerful series of drawings, Dr. Bao looks at and into her patients in the intensive care unit as she reflects on how daily medical interventions affect a patient's experience.
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):W34-W40. doi:10.7326/G18-0016
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):I-24. doi:10.7326/P18-0019
Ann Intern Med. 2019;170(1):I-26. doi:10.7326/P18-0020
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