Matthew P. Cheng, MD; Robert Stenstrom, MD, PhD; Katryn Paquette, MD; Sarah N. Stabler, PharmD; Murtaza Akhter, MD; Adam C. Davidson, MD; Marko Gavric, BSc; Alexander Lawandi, MD; Rehman Jinah, BSc; Zahid Saeed, MD; Koray Demir, MD; Kelly Huang, BSc; Amirali Mahpour, MD; Chris Shamatutu, BSc; Chelsea Caya, MSc; Jean-Marc Troquet, MD; Greg Clark, MD; Cedric P. Yansouni, MD; David Sweet, MD; for the FABLED Investigators
Although prompt antibiotic treatment of patients with sepsis improves outcomes, treatment before blood cultures are obtained may reduce the accuracy and utility of microbiological data. This prospective investigation evaluated whether the sensitivity of blood cultures was altered when they were obtained after antibiotic administration. </TOC Summary>
Vanessa Selak, MBChB, PhD; Rod Jackson, MBChB, PhD; Katrina Poppe, PhD; Billy Wu, MPH; Matire Harwood, MBChB, PhD; Corina Grey, MBChB, PhD; Romana Pylypchuk, PhD; Suneela Mehta, MBChB, MPH; Yeun-Hyang Choi, MSc; Andrew Kerr, MBChB, MD; Sue Wells, MBChB, PhD
The benefits of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease outweigh its bleeding harms in some patients. This individualized benefit–harm analysis from New Zealand primary care practices identifies characteristics of persons likely to have net benefit, equipoise, or net harm.
JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH; Aaron K. Aragaki, MS; Shari S. Bassuk, ScD; Rowan T. Chlebowski, MD, PhD; Garnet L. Anderson, PhD; Jacques E. Rossouw, MD; Barbara V. Howard, PhD; Cynthia A. Thomson, PhD; Marcia L. Stefanick, PhD; Andrew M. Kaunitz, MD; Carolyn J. Crandall, MD, MS; Charles B. Eaton, MD; Victor W. Henderson, MD; Simin Liu, MD, ScD; Juhua Luo, PhD; Thomas Rohan, MBBS, PhD; Aladdin H. Shadyab, PhD; Gretchen Wells, MD, PhD; Jean Wactawski-Wende, PhD; Ross L. Prentice, PhD; for the WHI Investigators
The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) included a large-scale, randomized trial of estrogen-alone therapy in women aged 50 to 79 years with prior hysterectomy. It is still uncertain whether the risks and benefits of this therapy differ between women with prior surgical removal of their ovaries and those with conserved ovaries, and whether results differ by age group. This study analyzes data from the WHI to address these questions.
David J. Whellan, MD, MHS
A sharp decline in clinical trials has occurred, whether measured as number of trials performed, number of participants enrolled, or number of investigators. This commentary discusses factors contributing to an environment that does not promote clinical trial research and offers suggestions for actions that academic health centers can take to counter these pressures.
Bruce R. Leslie, MD, MSPH; Leslie E. Gerwin, JD, MPH, MPA; Simeon I. Taylor, MD, PhD
On 15 May 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned that administration of sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could lead to ketoacidosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. This announcement came more than 2 years after the FDA's first approval of an SGLT2 inhibitor, although history tells us that this phenomenon had been known for more than 125 years.
Jacqueline H. Geer, MD; Mark D. Siegel, MD
The time taken to obtain blood cultures before administering antibiotics could contribute to a delay in the treatment of sepsis. Cheng and colleagues examined whether antibiotics can be administered before cultures are drawn without decreasing their yield. The editorialists discuss the findings and the need for diagnostic strategies that optimize both the timeliness and appropriateness of sepsis therapy.
John B. Kostis, MD
Selak and colleagues have reported a benefit–harm model to predict personalized benefits and bleeding harms from aspirin when used for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The editorialist discusses this model and its application to clinical practice in light of other conflicting evidence.
Jeremy A. Greene, MD, PhD
In this issue, Leslie and colleagues compiled a disturbing tale of historical amnesia in which the neglect of 19th- and 20th-century information led to preventable adverse events in 21st-century patients. The editorialist discusses what paths we might take in drug development to ensure that we avoid repeated rediscovery of past harms.
Faith T. Fitzgerald, MD
This meeting was the beginning of a long-standing friendship during which I followed her in my personal clinic, without housestaff.
Athalia Rachel Pyzer, MD, PhD
Is it better or worse to know that something remains of our past once dementia robs us of our present?
Carol Chen-Scarabelli, PhD
Thomas DeLoughery, MD, MACP, FAWM
Lorraine L. Lipscombe, MD, MSc
Omar M. El Kawkgi, MBBCH, BAO; Victor M. Montori, MD
Gaetano Santulli, MD
Jeremy Graham, DO, MA, FACP
Hemraj Pal, MD
Dennis G. Maki, MD, MACP
Ronald L. Koretz, MD
Geno J. Merli, MD; Howard H. Weitz, MD
Annals Consult Guys brings a new perspective to the art and science of medicine with lively discussion and analysis of real-world cases and situations. They address medically relevant topics—whether they be poignant, thought-provoking, or just plain entertaining.
Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD
David H. Wesorick, MD; Vineet Chopra, MD, MSc
Lisa H.Y. Kim, MD; Derek K. Chu, MD, PhD; Waleed Alhazzani, MD, MSc
The widespread use of supplemental oxygen in contemporary medicine implies that it is harmless. This commentary discusses why it may be time for a paradigm shift in oxygen therapy and why hospitalists are well positioned to initiate that shift.
Robert M. Centor, MD; Cyrus A. Askin, MD
In this episode of Annals On Call, Dr. Centor discusses the diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with Dr. Cyrus A. Askin.
Michael Natter, MD
Progress Notes explores the everyday emotional, clinical, humorous, and ethical challenges of the medical residency training process. It appears monthly in Annals Graphic Medicine at Annals.org.
Denelle Mohammed, MD
Annals Graphic Medicine brings together original graphic narratives, comics, animation/video, and other creative forms by those who provide or receive health care. They address medically relevant topics—whether they be poignant, thought-provoking, or just plain entertaining.
Alfonso Iorio, MD, PhD; Jeffrey S. Stonebraker, PhD; Hervé Chambost, MD; Michael Makris, MD; Donna Coffin, MSc; Christine Herr, MPH; Federico Germini, MD, MSc; for the Data and Demographics Committee of the World Federation of Hemophilia
The large observed variability in hemophilia prevalence prevents robust estimation of global burden of disease. This study estimates male prevalence and prevalence at birth of hemophilia and the associated life expectancy disadvantage using a meta-analytic approach of national registry data from Australia, Canada, France, Italy, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.
Maria Polyakova, PhD; Lynn M. Hua, BA
We know that people with low incomes live longer in high-income areas than in low-income areas. This study examines whether people with low income living in more affluent areas of the country are healthier, and whether areas with poor health in this population tend to exhibit high prevalence of most diseases.
J. Michael Soucie, PhD
In their article, Iorio and colleagues make the case that measurement of the global burden of hemophilia is an important step in developing strategies to address global gaps in access to care for this potentially devastating condition. The editorialist discusses the findings.
Giovanni Peretto, MD; Chiara Di Resta, PhD; Jacopo Perversi, MD; Cinzia Forleo, MD; Lorenzo Maggi, MD; Luisa Politano, MD; Andrea Barison, MD; Stefano C. Previtali, MD; Nicola Carboni, MD; Francesca Brun, MD; Elena Pegoraro, MD; Adele D'Amico, MD; Carmelo Rodolico, MD; Francesca Magri, MD; Rosa C. Manzi, MD; Alberto Palladino, MD; Franco Isola, MD; Lorenzo Gigli, MD; Tiziana E. Mongini, MD; Claudio Semplicini, MD; Chiara Calore, MD; Giulia Ricci, MD; Giacomo P. Comi, MD; Lucia Ruggiero, MD; Enrico Bertini, MD; Paolo Bonomo, MD; Gerardo Nigro, MD; Nicoletta Resta, MD; Michele Emdin, MD; Stefano Favale, MD; Gabriele Siciliano, MD; Lucio Santoro, MD; Gianfranco Sinagra, MD; Giuseppe Limongelli, MD; Alessandro Ambrosi, PhD; Maurizio Ferrari, MD; Pier G. Golzio, MD; Paolo Della Bella, MD; Sara Benedetti, PhD; Simone Sala, MD; on behalf of the Italian Network for Laminopathies (NIL)
The LMNA gene codes for the nuclear proteins lamin A and C, and mutations in this gene are associated with abnormalities in the heart and skeletal muscle. Not enough is known about the progression of disease in patients with these mutations. This article describes the natural history of LMNA-related heart disease in 164 patients who had repeated cardiac and neuromuscular evaluations over a median of 10 years.
Philipp Schwabl, MD; Sebastian Köppel, Dipl-Ing(FH); Philipp Königshofer, DVM; Theresa Bucsics, MD; Michael Trauner, MD; Thomas Reiberger, MD; Bettina Liebmann, PhD
Microplastics, defined as plastic particles smaller than 5 mm, are ubiquitous in natural environments. They are increasingly polluting aqueous, terrestrial, and airborne environments, and there have been several reports of microplastics in food and drinking water. In this prospective case series, the authors examined human stool samples to determine whether humans involuntarily ingest microplastics.
Esther S. Oh, MD, PhD; Dale M. Needham, MD, PhD; Roozbeh Nikooie, MD; Lisa M. Wilson, ScM; Allen Zhang, BS; Karen A. Robinson, PhD; Karin J. Neufeld, MD, MPH
This systematic review of 14 randomized trials examines benefits and harms of antipsychotics for prevention of delirium in adults.
Roozbeh Nikooie, MD; Karin J. Neufeld, MD, MPH; Esther S. Oh, MD, PhD; Lisa M. Wilson, ScM; Allen Zhang, BS; Karen A. Robinson, PhD; Dale M. Needham, MD, PhD
This systematic review of trials and observational studies examines the benefits and harms of using antipsychotics to treat delirium in hospitalized adults.
Edward R. Marcantonio, MD, SM
Nikooie and colleagues systematically reviewed the evidence on treatment of delirium, particularly focusing on antipsychotics. The editorial discusses the findings, why we need to abandon old habits of using antipsychotics to treat delirium, and priorities for future research.
Stephanie Wright, PhD; Ian Mudway, PhD
In this issue, Schwabl and colleagues begin to address the fate of ingested microplastics by examining whether they can be detected in human stool. The editorialists discuss the findings and the priorities for future research.
Garen J. Wintemute, MD, MPH; Veronica A. Pear, MPH; Julia P. Schleimer, MPH; Rocco Pallin, MPH; Sydney Sohl, BS; Nicole Kravitz-Wirtz, PhD; Elizabeth A. Tomsich, PhD
Extreme risk protection orders (ERPOs) are urgent, individualized interventions aimed to reduce firearm access when risk for imminent firearm injury is high. In January 2016, California enacted the nation's first ERPO statute. This article summarizes the circumstances and outcomes of California's early ERPOs.
Robert M. McLean, MD; Patrice Harris, MD; John Cullen, MD; Ronald V. Maier, MD; Kyle E. Yasuda, MD; Bruce J. Schwartz, MD; Georges C. Benjamin, MD
In this special article, the leadership of 7 of the nation's largest physician and public health professional societies reiterate their commitment to finding solutions and call for policies to reduce firearm-related injuries and deaths.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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